It is a financial indicator used for evaluating investments. Basically, it represents the income that will result from the investment, minus all the costs. It also takes into account the discount rate and thereby the time value of money, meaning the depreciation of the value of costs and incomes in the future.
How to calculate the NPV?
Formula: NPV = F / [ (1 + i)^n ]
PV = Present Value
F = Future payment (cash flow)
i = discount rate (or interest rate)
n = the number of periods